The History of the Atom

images (36)Take a look around you and see where you are. What is the closest object to your right or your left? What are the things surrounding you and ask yourself, what are they made up of? They are all made up of atoms. An atom is the basic building block for matter. Everything in this world contains atoms as they have all matter.

The study of atoms has not been studied for a long period of time. The first person to suggest the idea of the atom was Greek philosopher Democritus. He thought to himself what would happen if you kept on breaking matter into smaller and smaller pieces. He knew you would have to reach the smallest point available and he would call these tiny particles atoms. However, his idea was ultimately rejected by everyone including Aristotle. Democritus’ idea was rejected on the grounds that is was too silly and due to the fact that since Aristotle’s opinion was highly valued many people would believe whatever Aristotle would say. This idea was never fully studied again until in the early 1800’s by a

Water Meets Electricity

download (45)Our parents always tell us not to be around water when there is a lightning, not to use our hair dryer next to running water, and definitely not to have plugs anywhere near water. There is a reason for that, once electricity touches water, the electricity moves through water. So what really happens to us when we touch water that has been in contact with electricity, what happens to water, and what happens to the electricity.

What is electricity? Electricity is produced when electrons are moving from one atom to another. Electricity usually chooses the routes with less resistance and the shortest one to the ground. While electricity is important and crucial for our existence as a human race, it can also bring dangers when in contact with water. But, what is water? Water is a liquid substance (that many of us do not appreciate) that easily dissolves many different materials, including some metals. However, water cannot conduct electricity very well, since it has little to NO ions and is very pure. Because of that, the existing ions carry electric charge through the water

This entry was posted on May 15, 2016.

The Man-Made Monster

images (35)In this world, humans constantly developed weapons throughout history, and weapons, such as rifle, machine gun, and cannon, have become more and more effective for killing people. Also, explosive weapons, such as grenade, C4, and missile, are used for effective destruction and killing. Among all the weapons, there is one kind of weapon that can knock an entire city down and take millions of lives away: nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapons are the most deadly weapon in this world, and the power they have is adequate for cleaning up the surface of Earth.

Since nuclear weapons are powerful and fatal, it is necessary to know how they function. The atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb are two main nuclear weapons, and two types of nuclear reaction are used for these two kinds of bombs: nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

On December 17, 1938, nuclear fission was founded by German scientist Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann. During nuclear fission, a nuclear chain reaction will occur because of interactions between neutrons and fissile isotopes that neutrons of atoms are ejected and will interact with more fissile

How Do Instruments Make Sounds?

images (34)There are six experimentally separable ways in which sound waves are analysed, which are Pitch, Duration, Loudness, Timbre, Sonic Texture, and Spatial Location. Pitch is perceived as how “low” or “high” a sound is and represents the cyclic, repetitive nature of the vibrations that make up sound. Duration is perceived as how “long” or “short” a sound is and relates to onset and offset signals created by nerve responses to sounds. Loudness is perceived as how “loud” or “soft” a sound is and relates to the totalled number of auditory nerve stimulations over short cyclic time periods, most likely over the duration of theta wave cycles. Timbre is perceived as the quality of different sounds and represents the pre-conscious allocation of a sonic identity to a sound. Sonic Texture relates to the number of sound sources and interaction between them. Spatial Location represents the cognitive placement of a sound in an environmental context; including the placement of a sound on both the horizontal and vertical plane, the distance from the sound source and the characteristics of the sonic environment. Sound is a vibration

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions: What’s the Difference?

images (33)Endothermic and exothermic may sound similar but are complete polar opposites of each other. Depending on what chemicals and or conditions are in a certain system, it will be either endothermic or exothermic. Although we may not think about it, endothermic and exothermic are always happening in our everyday lives.

Coming from the greek roots of “exo” meaning outside and “therm” meaning heat, exothermic reactions are reactions that release heat from its system into its immediate surroundings. When exothermic reactions occur, the immediate surroundings of the reactions gain energy becoming hot while the system itself loses energy becoming cold. This is the case because when the reaction occurs, heat is the product so if the system releases energy, so the immediate surrounding area will be hot. When exothermic reactions occur, the reactants yield the products plus heat. In an exothermic reactions the reactants have more energy that the products meaning the We see reactions that are exothermic in our everyday life, like something as obvious as a hot compression pad but there are many other everyday things we encounter. The flame of a candle

This entry was posted on April 25, 2016.

Scientific Paradigms And Universal Truths

download (44)Some have argued that existing scientific paradigms are pretty meaningless since they keep changing. I wouldn’t quite consider currently existing paradigms meaningless. We only exist in this brief era so whatever this era’s paradigms are helps us come to terms with this era’s version of reality, otherwise known as our current understanding of life, the Universe and everything. The same applied to those living in the pre-relativity / pre-quantum paradigm. The same applied pre-Newton. Ditto those existing in any pre-Copernican era. The same will apply for those trying to come to terms with reality decades, centuries, millennium from now.

Science isn’t about absolute truth (or ultimate answers), again, because what’s true today may be falsified tomorrow; paradigms change and evolve. Science appears to be rather about providing the best explanation possible in the here and now; a better explanation than that was provided yesterday; ideally providing an even better explanation tomorrow.

So science is an ever unfolding, ongoing, evolving an unveiling of reality, which is how I like to see science. Science can’t be a quest for the truth since what is considered true

Sound in Space

images (32)Similar to how light or heat travels, sound travels in waves. What we call “sound” are actually vibrations in the air. In empty space, there is no air, which means that no sound can be produced. Light waves and radio waves do exist in space, however, that is because light does not need air to travel. Since light can travel in space, there is no problem is seeing light, but when it comes to sound a radio must be sent to translate any sound that may be connected with the light waves.

Unless they are in their spacecraft, astronauts in space cannot talk to one another, seeing as there is a lack of air. When astronauts are spacewalking, radios in their helmets allow them to communicate with each other since radio waves are not sound, and can actually exist in space. While some argue that already existing gases in space could propagate sound, just like Earth’s air allows sound to travel, it is highly unlikely that we would be able to hear them. The difference is that gas clouds are much less dense than

This entry was posted on April 12, 2016.

Understanding Sound

images (31)Hearing is one of the most important senses of the human body. We use it everyday in our daily lives, and we hear as much or more than we see, feel, taste, and smell. What do we exactly hear? The answer to that question is sound. What exactly is sound though, and how is it created? Sound is a series of vibrations that travel through air or another platform and heard when it reaches the ear of a person or animal. In more simpler terms, sound is a form of energy that spreads out through space. What is the source of all sound? In one word, vibration.

A major facet to understanding this concept is pitch. What exactly is pitch? Pitch is what refers to the frequency of the sound. A high pitched sound has a high vibration frequency, while a low pitched sound has a low vibration frequency. The pitch range of frequency is from about twenty hertz to twenty-thousand hertz. The more we age, our hearing range goes down or shrinks, more specifically at the end of high frequency.

Sound waves with frequencies

This entry was posted on March 21, 2016.

The History and the Types of Automotive Gasolines

download (43)The automotive industries were dated back to the early 19th centuries, and it has prospered until right now in our communities. Most cars in the 19th century uses simple types of a combustion engine that laid the foundation for the development of the engine we see today. However, the fuel sources of both engines that are used to propel the cars remain the same (as long as they are used to powered an internal combustion engine). In today’s society, we mainly see cars that have a combustion engine uses pure gasoline. However, they are many types of gasoline from leaded to unleaded fuel and from octane ratings rated at 87, 89, and 91.

The invention of pure gasoline (not to be confused with Diesel) dated back to the Gilded age with the distillation of oil to kerosene. At first, there was no used for gasoline because cars were not invented and most transportation uses steam as its sources of energy. Therefore, it was discarded. Gasoline finally became a valuable commodity, with the introduction of Henry Ford’s affordable car in the 1920s known as the

Static Guard

images (30)Static Guard and How It Works

Static electricity is a kind of electricity that stays in one place. Static can build up on things that do not conduct electricity very well such as rubber and plastics. Coming in contact with static by providing a discharge of current from your body can be very uncomfortable. There are products which can eliminate or reduce static electricity in order to avoid a nasty shock. The product Static Guard is a chemical method used to eliminate static electricity. The spray is made up of a conducting polymer (plastic) and a solvent made from deionized water and alcohol. You spray the product on a surface like a dress or a sweater, and when it evaporates, it leaves behind a conducting “skin” on the surface of the object that prevents static build up. As the conducting layer is left on the surface of an object that has been sprayed, static electricity cannot build up on the object and, therefore, you do not have to worry about shocking yourself. Static electricity has no way to release the energy that builds up

This entry was posted on March 11, 2016 and tagged .

Energy in Chemical Reactions

images (29)A chemical reaction happens when two different elements or substances interact to form a new substance with a different chemical composition. Along with every chemical reaction, comes a change in energy, where that energy is either gained or lost. Energy is the capacity of an object to do work or supply heat. Within the chemical bonds of substances there is chemical potential energy. The way atoms are arranged within a substance determines the amount of chemical potential energy a substance has. When a substance undergoes a chemical change, its energy changes. This change in energy can be observed in different ways. Oftentimes, a change in energy also results in a change of heat, with the heat flowing from a warmer object to a cooler one. Sometimes a change of energy, during chemical changes, causes a release of light or sound as well as well. For example the chemicals in fireworks produce light and sound.

A chemical change that gains energy is called an endothermic reaction. An endothermic reaction happens when an object absorbs heat from its surroundings during a chemical reaction. An example

This entry was posted on March 1, 2016 and tagged .

The 5 States of Matter of the World

download (42)There is a misconception that there are only three States of Matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Well I’m trying to break that misconception because there are really five States of Matter and they are solid, liquid, gas, PLASMA, and BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES (BEC).

The First State of Matter is Solid. In a solid, particles are compiled very tightly together so they can not move around a lot. Most of the time the particles in a solid move only the slightest amounts and they have a very low kinetic energy. The reason the particles move is because the electrons of each atom are in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are in a fixed position. Solids also have a definite or fixed shape. They do not change shapes when they are put in containers. Also they have a definite volume. The solid particles are so tightly packed together that increasing pressure will not compress the solid to a smaller volume.

The liquid particles of a substance have more kinetic energy that the particles of a solid. The liquid particles are held in an

This entry was posted on February 25, 2016 and tagged .

Butterfly Effect: Reality or Myth

download (40)The Butterfly Effect, simply put, is the phenomenon where a small change in the initial conditions may pile up over time, and in the end, create a massive effect. Just like a small snowball rolled downhill may gather more snow on the way and by the time it reaches the base, it turns huge! This forms the basis of a rather emerging field of science: “Chaos”. It is just what the name suggests – the study of highly complex systems that are sensitive to very slight changes, sometimes, even to the ones they themselves create!

Emergence of a New Science

What else would’ve been a better field for the emergence of Chaos than Meteorology, where even a small change in the wind speed may delay monsoon by days! The Butterfly Effect was discovered for the first time in 1961, in the laboratory of one such MIT Meteorologist, Edward Lorenz. Lorenz was more of a mathematics person than his colleagues. He had never been much interested in pure Meteorology, instead, he wanted to encapture the beauty of weather by mathematical formulas, which would allow Meteorologists like

Smart Science With Unintelligent Conclusions

download (41)My love of science led me to many areas of research, especially when studying medical science in my youth and then bio-anthropology in later years. The concepts are amazing and the way things come together are elements of nature are manipulated, added together, taken away, or transformed into other things is mind-blowing. One has only to look at electricity which starts from nothing more than friction to understand the power behind it.

That power can kill, maim, or turn one’s life around. It is the same power generated from lightning which is caused by friction of water molecules high in the sky. It is a reminder that long before man decided to explore the elements and to work to understand how simple things in nature work there was a more powerful force controlling everything.

It is that power that I want to focus on in this article because it is something I have experienced firsthand. It is not dangerous but it can knock you off your feet. It can’t be seen or felt but it can pin you down to the ground so that you

This entry was posted on February 11, 2016.

11 Lesser Known Facts About Louis Pasteur

download (39)Louis Pasteur, born in 1822, was a French scientist. He went on to become a Chemistry professor and made quite a lot of discoveries. Popularly known as Chemist and Microbiologist, he is known for his tremendous contribution to the field of science. He is known for his work in Vaccination, Pasteurization and Fermentation processes. Here are some interesting facts which throw light on his work as a scientist:

1. Pasteurization

Louis Pasteur came up with one of the most important discoveries of the pasteurization process. He found that when we heat milk, all the germs inside it get killed and this way we can have a safer way to drink and use milk. This process saved people from getting sick.

2. Study Graph of Louis

Louis started with school where he was an average student. But instead he was a gifted artist. He loved to draw and paint. He went on to acquire a doctorate degree and later became a professor of Chemistry and teacher dean faculty at Lille University.

3. “Vaccination”

He was the one who came up with the word of “Vaccination” as we know it today.

The Growth of Performance Based Funding for Research

images (28)EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION

Corporations have demonstrated a clear preference for either funding short-term applied research projects, or stepping away from research entirely and simply buying-up competitors who bring new products or treatments to the market. The billionaire owners (or majority shareholders) of those corporations have the financial freedom to fund their own research centers, and some do that by endowing such centers at major research institutions. For the rest of the academic institutions, however, research funding is often limited to smaller grant-funded projects, alumni endowments, or a portion of the national research budgets of federal agencies. How those agencies calculate the size of those respective portions has been coming under increasing scrutiny.

THE ERA OF AUSTERITY

As governments around the world continue to struggle with lower tax revenues and the consequences of profligate spending in their respective pasts, the amount of government funding awarded to scholarly research has come under increasing scrutiny. Justification of funding for ongoing research projects has been easier to achieve provided those projects are remaining on budget and on target, but with each new project, funds have to be justified against alternative potential

Clay Is Actually Mud

images (27)The remains of a stone, thrown off a mountain, grinded smaller and smaller and smaller. Granulated, pulverised, powdered into dust until it settles as silt into the quiet arms of a river. For centuries people have been extracting it. We dig it up to wash and knead it and then…

Some 15000 years ago people discovered that fire could transfer clay into stone. And we are still doing that. We started out with bowls that could contain our food and the first figurines. Female figurines of course, for women give birth, give life.

Those first sculptures were hand formed, made without a wheel or a mold, everything was shaped by hand. When you visit an archaeological museum you may sometimes see those bowls, dating back several thousands of years, still containing the fingerprints of the maker. A man or woman just like you, with hands and fingers. Perhaps cursing because things didn’t work out the way he or she wanted or being proud and happy with the result of all this kneading and pushing and firing. It was garnished with twigs and strings and pinches

This entry was posted on January 25, 2016.

Virtual Reality As Explanation For The “Observer Effect”

download (38)In physics, especially quantum physics, there exists the idea that the consciousness of an observer creates or at least influences external realities. Because physics is an established experimental science, one has to sit up and pay attention to the claims that this “Observer Effect” is in fact an established reality in its own right. Unfortunately, there are no known theoretical mechanisms than can account for this. But if this “Observer Effect” is so then it is strong evidence that we exist as virtual reality beings in a computer simulated landscape.

THE BASIC PREMISE IN REVIEW

In both physics and in relatively New Age philosophy, there exists the idea (established in physics – waffled about in philosophy) that the consciousness of an observer creates or at least influences external realities. Because physics is an established experimental science, one has to sit up and pay attention to the claims that this “Observer Effect” is in fact an established reality in its own right. The two main experiments that support this “Observer Effect” are the Double-Slit Experiment where waves remain waves unless observed in which case waves turn

Torch Height Control Through Arc Voltage Sensing for Plasma Cutting

images (26)The role of a torch height control system for mechanized cutting systems is often understated. A good THC (Torch Height Control) is absolutely critical to get good cut quality. It is a known fact that by far the best possible control method is by sensing the cutting voltage. The cutting voltage is directly proportional to the height between the torch and the workpiece; higher the distance, higher the voltage and vice-versa. So one can easily take the cutting voltage as a control parameter and use the same for controlling the stand-off distance. This method of control is frequently referred to as AVC (arc voltage sensing). Sensing the arc voltage is not devoid of challenges. The torch is subjected to a high frequency pilot arc, which creates plasma. This HF can easily traverse back to the sensitive voltage measuring circuitry and damage/cause malfunctioning of the system. It is absolutely essential to isolate the measuring circuitry from the plasma HF and yet be able to measure the voltage accurately. Highly sensitive arc voltage control circuitry can detect voltage variations less than 0.5V. Accurate measurements as

This entry was posted on January 21, 2016 and tagged , , , .

It’s Only Regular Matter

download (37)Dark matter, in a nutshell, is a theoretical force envisioned by scientists that would explain the behavior of galaxies that seem to be spinning fast enough for some of their stars to fly out of their orbits but do not. For galaxies to remain intact they would have to have a greater gravitational pull than their visible mass suggests. Scientists therefore theorized, as far back as the 1930s, that there must be some invisible matter — dark matter — that’s holding galaxies together.

The problem is that as hard as we try to detect dark matter we cannot. And despite other theories to explain galaxies’ behavior, their rapid spin remains a mystery.

I’d like to propose a new theory that might shed some light on all this. A study done several years ago showed that the universe’s energy is decreasing. What if gravity, too, has been getting weaker? Not necessarily in lockstep or conjunction with the universe’s energy, or, perhaps there is a connection. Regardless, a diminishing gravity scenario — where gravity has been steadily declining since the beginning of time — would explain what

This entry was posted on January 4, 2016.