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The History of the Atom

images (36)Take a look around you and see where you are. What is the closest object to your right or your left? What are the things surrounding you and ask yourself, what are they made up of? They are all made up of atoms. An atom is the basic building block for matter. Everything in this world contains atoms as they have all matter.

The study of atoms has not been studied for a long period of time. The first person to suggest the idea of the atom was Greek philosopher Democritus. He thought to himself what would happen if you kept on breaking matter into smaller and smaller pieces. He knew you would have to reach the smallest point available and he would call these tiny particles atoms. However, his idea was ultimately rejected by everyone including Aristotle. Democritus’ idea was rejected on the grounds that is was too silly and due to the fact that since Aristotle’s opinion was highly valued many people would believe whatever Aristotle would say. This idea was never fully studied again until in the early 1800’s by a scientist called John Dalton.

His atomic theory was the first time the idea of the atom was placed on a solid foothold. In short, his theory stated that elements consisted of tiny particles called atoms. Although, not all of his points were true his theory still helped pave the way for future investigations into this topic.

In 1897, J.J. Thomson discovered electrons. He was able to discover it using a cathode ray tube. In his experiment he sealed gases in a glass tube fitted with electrodes.The electrodes were connected to a source of electricity, and when turned on one would become negatively charged while the other turned positively charged. This resulted in a bright beam called a cathode ray. J.J. Thomson put positively and negatively charged magnets on opposite sides of the glass. The cathode ray would be attracted by the positively charged magnet while being deflected by the negatively charged magnet. He hypothesized that the cathode ray was made up of tiny negatively charged particles called electrons.

However, the biggest contribution to the research of the atom came from Ernest Rutherford. He discovered the nucleus, the center of the atom. He performed a gold-foil experiment where he shot alpha particles at a thin gold foil. Much to his surprise, a small portion of the alpha particles bounced off at very large while almost all passed through the foil with ease. Thanks to his experiment he hypothesized that a small region in the center of the atom was positively charged and called this the nucleus.

In 1930, James Chadwick began hitting beryllium with alpha particles and when it hit beryllium it began emitting radiation. Chadwick studied this radiation and found neutral particles that weighed slightly more than the mass of protons. He called these neutral particles, neutrons.

Today, we know a lot more about the atom compared to one thousand years ago. We know it is the fundamental building block for all life. Thanks to the many contributions of scientist over the years we can continue their work and gather more data on this small but enormous part of our life. We have proved that atoms can be split and we have used this to benefit our lives and we continue to research more ways on how atoms can better our lives. We can use nanotechnology, which uses nano atoms, to detect and possibly even exterminate cancers and tumors in our bodies.

 

Water Meets Electricity

download (45)Our parents always tell us not to be around water when there is a lightning, not to use our hair dryer next to running water, and definitely not to have plugs anywhere near water. There is a reason for that, once electricity touches water, the electricity moves through water. So what really happens to us when we touch water that has been in contact with electricity, what happens to water, and what happens to the electricity.

What is electricity? Electricity is produced when electrons are moving from one atom to another. Electricity usually chooses the routes with less resistance and the shortest one to the ground. While electricity is important and crucial for our existence as a human race, it can also bring dangers when in contact with water. But, what is water? Water is a liquid substance (that many of us do not appreciate) that easily dissolves many different materials, including some metals. However, water cannot conduct electricity very well, since it has little to NO ions and is very pure. Because of that, the existing ions carry electric charge through the water making it dangerous.

So what are the dangers of being around water that was in contact with electricity and is now electrically charged? There are come cases when people who were around during thunderstorms have been shocked to death and unfortunately passed away. Well, that is because human body is mostly made up of water and different kinds of dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, and calcium). That makes our, human, bodies AMAZINGconductors. As awesome as it sounds, it is as exciting when this great quality puts us in danger. Because human bodies are such great conductors, electricity flows very easily through our bodies. Thus, when the human body is in contact with water, that carries electricity due to its purity, When in contact with water or close to water, we attract the electricity, and eventually electricity reaches our body, shocking it with an electric shock and causing damage especially on the heart. Some say that you should not even take showers, do laundry, or be in contact with tap water during storms since it can still carry the electric current.

When water meets electricity, it should be private meeting, without humans involved. Contact with water that has been in contact with electricity can carry horrible consequences that can hurt us not only in a long run, but also right away. So, kids, listen to your mothers when they tell you to keep your electrical appliances away from water, the information is shocking!

This entry was posted on May 15, 2016, in Education.

The Man-Made Monster

images (35)In this world, humans constantly developed weapons throughout history, and weapons, such as rifle, machine gun, and cannon, have become more and more effective for killing people. Also, explosive weapons, such as grenade, C4, and missile, are used for effective destruction and killing. Among all the weapons, there is one kind of weapon that can knock an entire city down and take millions of lives away: nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapons are the most deadly weapon in this world, and the power they have is adequate for cleaning up the surface of Earth.

Since nuclear weapons are powerful and fatal, it is necessary to know how they function. The atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb are two main nuclear weapons, and two types of nuclear reaction are used for these two kinds of bombs: nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

On December 17, 1938, nuclear fission was founded by German scientist Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann. During nuclear fission, a nuclear chain reaction will occur because of interactions between neutrons and fissile isotopes that neutrons of atoms are ejected and will interact with more fissile fuel, and then more fissions are caused. Accordingly, the nuclear chain reaction will occur continuously and release energy. Nuclear fusion is another type of nuclear reaction that can produce more energy than nuclear fission. During nuclear fusion, two or more atomic nuclei will collide at very high speed and form a new nucleus, and then energy will be produced, which is known as “binding energy”.

The first atomic bomb in the world was produced in the Manhattan Project, and more than 130,000 people and scientists led by the US were involved in the project. J. Robert Oppenheimer was one of the “father of the atomic bomb” in the project, and he used “Trinity” as the code name for the first atomic bomb in the world. “Trinity” was an implosion-type bomb, and it was successfully detonated in New Mexico on July 16, 1945. The explosion of “Trinity” released the energy that is equal to 20 kilotons of TNT.

Followed the success of the detonation of the first nuclear bomb, on August 6 and August 9 of the same year, the Allies launched the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A gun-type atomic bomb named “Little Boy” was dropped in Hiroshima, and the energy of the explosion was equivalent to 16 kilotons of TNT, but only 1.7% of its material participated in the nuclear chain reaction. The explosion also caused the destruction that has the radius of 1 mile, and 90,000 to 146,000 people (70% of them were innocent people) were killed and injured in Hiroshima. On August 9, 1945, three days after the bombing of Hiroshima, he Allies dropped “Fat Man” in Nagasaki. “Fat Man” was an implosion-type atomic bomb, and the explosion yielded the energy that is equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT. The radius of destruction was 1 mile, and From 39,000 to 80,000 people were killed after the bombing, and only 150 of them were soldiers. The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki totally killed at least 129,000 people, and it was the first time that atomic bomb was used in warfare.

The hydrogen bomb is much more powerful than atomic bomb due to its way of nuclear reaction, and the most powerful hydrogen bomb that had been detonated in the history was “Tsar Bomba”. “Tsar bomba” was produced by the USSR and it was tested on October 30, 1961. It yielded the energy of 50 megatons of TNT and the radius of explosion was 22 miles and the explosion also had effect in the area that was 34 miles away from the center of explosion.

To sum up, nuclear weapons are the most powerful and deadly weapons in the world. Although this kind of weapon was used in warfare for only one time, people could see the terrible destruction and the loss of innocent lives carried by it. Therefore, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the United Nation Assembly on September 10, 1996.

How Do Instruments Make Sounds?

images (34)There are six experimentally separable ways in which sound waves are analysed, which are Pitch, Duration, Loudness, Timbre, Sonic Texture, and Spatial Location. Pitch is perceived as how “low” or “high” a sound is and represents the cyclic, repetitive nature of the vibrations that make up sound. Duration is perceived as how “long” or “short” a sound is and relates to onset and offset signals created by nerve responses to sounds. Loudness is perceived as how “loud” or “soft” a sound is and relates to the totalled number of auditory nerve stimulations over short cyclic time periods, most likely over the duration of theta wave cycles. Timbre is perceived as the quality of different sounds and represents the pre-conscious allocation of a sonic identity to a sound. Sonic Texture relates to the number of sound sources and interaction between them. Spatial Location represents the cognitive placement of a sound in an environmental context; including the placement of a sound on both the horizontal and vertical plane, the distance from the sound source and the characteristics of the sonic environment. Sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement through a medium such as air or water.

The type of medium sound passes through will determine its speed and wave type. Sound waves can come in the form of either transverse waves or longitudinal waves. Humans can hear sounds from approximately a range of 20 Hertz to 20 Kilo-Hertz. There is a lower pitch at 20 Hertz, and a higher pitch at 20 Kilo-Hertz. Humans can hear between approximately 0 Decibels and 160 Decibels, the measurement of quietness and loudness. The amplitude of sound waves determine the quietness or loudness of the sound exhibited.

Acoustic instruments generate sound physically whereas electronic instruments create sound electrically. There are for different types of acoustic groups: percussion (hit or shaken), wind (woodwind and brass; blown), string (bowed or plucked), and keyboard (played with fingers). An instrument creates sound when part of it vibrates rapidly. Several examples are: the column of air inside a wind instrument, the string of a string instrument, or the stretched skin of a drum all vibrate when played. These vibrations produce sound waves in the air, which we hear as different musical notes. Electronic instruments, such as electronic keyboards, do not make actually sounds in the way an acoustic instrument does. An electronic instrument produces an electric signal that is transmitted to an amplifier and then broadcast through a loudspeaker. Using a process called synthesis, electronic instruments imitate acoustic instruments or create their own noises.

 

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions: What’s the Difference?

images (33)Endothermic and exothermic may sound similar but are complete polar opposites of each other. Depending on what chemicals and or conditions are in a certain system, it will be either endothermic or exothermic. Although we may not think about it, endothermic and exothermic are always happening in our everyday lives.

Coming from the greek roots of “exo” meaning outside and “therm” meaning heat, exothermic reactions are reactions that release heat from its system into its immediate surroundings. When exothermic reactions occur, the immediate surroundings of the reactions gain energy becoming hot while the system itself loses energy becoming cold. This is the case because when the reaction occurs, heat is the product so if the system releases energy, so the immediate surrounding area will be hot. When exothermic reactions occur, the reactants yield the products plus heat. In an exothermic reactions the reactants have more energy that the products meaning the We see reactions that are exothermic in our everyday life, like something as obvious as a hot compression pad but there are many other everyday things we encounter. The flame of a candle is exothermic because the energy is being released into the immediate surrounding while the system loses energy. Other examples of exothermic reactions are the formation of ice, mixing water with acids, and nuclear fission. Exothermic reactions are very useful being that the methane combustion in our gas stoves, the combustion of the gas in our cars, and the use of dynamite that mines our coal, are all exothermic reactions. Also, cellular respiration is exothermic.

Endothermic reactions, being the complete opposite of exothermic reactions, comes from the greek roots of “endo” meaning within and “therm” meaning heat. Endothermic reactions absorb heat from the immediate surroundings into the system making the immediate surroundings colder because of the lesser amount of energy previously there. This is the case because when the reaction occurs, energy is needed to make the product so it takes the surrounding energy making the surroundings cold. In endothermic reactions, the reactants and energy yield the products. Endothermic reactions like baking bread, the production of sugar in photosynthesis, and cooking an egg are all things that we experience in our everyday lives and are very important. The most important endothermic reaction is the evaporation of water which we use to sweat which is a way to maintain homeostasis and not pass out and die. Also, obviously cold packs are endothermic being that when mixing the two chemicals in the bag, it becomes cold.

 

This entry was posted on April 25, 2016, in Education.

Scientific Paradigms And Universal Truths

download (44)Some have argued that existing scientific paradigms are pretty meaningless since they keep changing. I wouldn’t quite consider currently existing paradigms meaningless. We only exist in this brief era so whatever this era’s paradigms are helps us come to terms with this era’s version of reality, otherwise known as our current understanding of life, the Universe and everything. The same applied to those living in the pre-relativity / pre-quantum paradigm. The same applied pre-Newton. Ditto those existing in any pre-Copernican era. The same will apply for those trying to come to terms with reality decades, centuries, millennium from now.

Science isn’t about absolute truth (or ultimate answers), again, because what’s true today may be falsified tomorrow; paradigms change and evolve. Science appears to be rather about providing the best explanation possible in the here and now; a better explanation than that was provided yesterday; ideally providing an even better explanation tomorrow.

So science is an ever unfolding, ongoing, evolving an unveiling of reality, which is how I like to see science. Science can’t be a quest for the truth since what is considered true today can always be falsified at a later date. So IMHO science is just the quest to come to terms with the nature of reality as best it can, given the circumstances it finds itself in at any given time. For example, before the inventions of the telescope and the microscope, our version and vision of reality was more restricted than after-the-fact.

So, what is true? What is truth? Is there any absolute universal truth?

Actually there is one and only one thing that you (no matter how much science you read or do) can consider to be true, and that is that you (i.e. – your mind) exists. That aside, there’s no absolute truth anymore in [Einstein’s] Relativity. That is, one person may see events A & B simultaneously; another person sees A before B; a third person sees B before A. So, what’s the truth of the matter?

If you travel into a Black Hole, as you cross the event horizon time seems to flow at one second per second; to an external observer you’re crossing the event horizon as would the flow of molasses in an Antarctic winter! What’s the truth of the matter?

Before you look, is Schrodinger’s Cat dead or alive? What is the truth about the state of the Cat?

Is it true that Antarctica is cold? If you are a human in your birthday suit, then yes. If you are a penguin then not so much. But compared to the concept of Absolute Zero, Antarctica is really quite tropical!

Is it true that Pi has a value? If so, what is it?

Once might suggest that the speed of light (in an absolute vacuum) is an absolute truth, except that we don’t know for absolute certain that the speed of light has been constant over cosmic time intervals.

Is it true that the Universe extends infinitely in all directions? If so, if that is true, how could you or anyone else for that matter ever prove it? Actually I quite accept the idea and that there could be lots of expanding and contracting universes (i.e. – a Multiverse) within this postulated infinite Cosmos, but how could an infinite Cosmos be proven to be an absolute truth?

Isn’t gravity or the force of gravity a universal and absolute truth? But can that be entirely true since while a theoretical graviton particle might convey the force of gravity, it itself doesn’t have any mass and has no gravity in and of itself. Further, I’ve read speculations regarding the Multiverse concept (many individual universes within this infinite Cosmos) that the laws, principles and relationships of physics could be quite different in each universe even to the point where it’s not inevitable that there is a graviton or any gravity in some universes within the Multiverse. Even in a universe without gravity particles could still form into atoms and atoms into molecules and molecules up to whatever structures that are consistent with being held in place by electromagnetism (assuming that exists in this hypothetical universe). In fact positive – negative attraction is a form of pseudo-gravity. So what might be an absolute universal truth(s) across a Multiverse?

Back to gravity. Is it absolutely true that if you drop an apple it will fall towards the ground? Well no, since it is theoretically possible that all of the relevant forces could against all probability but not against all possibility push the apple upwards. In a similar fashion, it’s not true that you can’t walk through a solid brick wall. If you’re willing to wait trillions of years, quantum probabilities are such that you could quantum tunnel through a brick wall and live (you and wall both totally intact) to tell the tale.

Once upon a time it used to be scientifically true that: dinosaurs were sluggish, their tails dragged behind them, they were cold-blooded, and couldn’t out-think a fly; all swans were white; Jupiter just had four moons and no rings; the Sun went around the Earth; there was a vital life force; there were just four elements (air, earth, fire and water); stones couldn’t fall from the sky; comets were harbingers of gloom and doom; there were hundreds of (pseudo) snake-oil medical treatments for ailments that really treated nothing of the sort; Venus had a natural satellite (Neith); unicorns, dragons and related really existed.

In that spirit I predict that one day the ‘truth’ that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating will be falsified.

Earlier I asked what might be an absolute universal truth(s) across a Multiverse?

I have my own trilogy of absolute truths. 1) Something cannot be created from nothing. 2) Causality rules absolutely*. 3) Something cannot both be and not at the same time and in the same place. In fact something cannot both be and not at the same time – full stop. But not everyone agrees with my absolute truths so maybe the best that can be said is that each person has his or her own version of ‘the truth’.

There are of course logical truths that are true based of exact definitions. For example, it’s absolutely true based on accepted definitions that you can’t have a spherical cube. There are also mathematical truths as in two parallel lines will never intersect no matter how far they are extended in Euclidian space. Of course no one has ever performed the actual test of that to verify that absolute truth, but that’s just quibbling.

But “truth” is a rather slippery word or concept and philosophers have had a field day over discussing it. I rather doubt philosophers, or even professional scientists for that matter, really expect there to be such a thing as one and only one version of universal truth. Perhaps it’s best to avoid the word, apart from that lone absolute truth that you (i.e. – your mind) exists.

My preferred phrase is “what is the nature of reality?” since one reality (i.e. – Mother Nature’s reality) can incorporate several versions of ‘the truth’ (i.e. – Einstein’s Relativity).

*And therein lies my other absolute truth – motion. I’ve already argued that time is nothing but change and change is nothing but motion, but causality also requires motion. Motion therefore is to my way of thinking the most fundamentally absolute property that the Cosmos has.

Science librarian; retired.

 

Sound in Space

images (32)Similar to how light or heat travels, sound travels in waves. What we call “sound” are actually vibrations in the air. In empty space, there is no air, which means that no sound can be produced. Light waves and radio waves do exist in space, however, that is because light does not need air to travel. Since light can travel in space, there is no problem is seeing light, but when it comes to sound a radio must be sent to translate any sound that may be connected with the light waves.

Unless they are in their spacecraft, astronauts in space cannot talk to one another, seeing as there is a lack of air. When astronauts are spacewalking, radios in their helmets allow them to communicate with each other since radio waves are not sound, and can actually exist in space. While some argue that already existing gases in space could propagate sound, just like Earth’s air allows sound to travel, it is highly unlikely that we would be able to hear them. The difference is that gas clouds are much less dense than the Earth’s atmosphere. If sound were to travel through a gas cloud, our ears not being sensitive enough, wouldn’t hear the sound. A large, sensitive microphone could detect the sounds, but our human ear will always hear silence. Space is a vacuum where gases are released into space and expand very quickly while their density decreases. This fact, disproves all movies with explosions in outer space. While an exploding ship would realize gases and sound could technically travel along them, the gases would spread rapidly and lose density quickly, that the sound would deb too faint to hear. Then again, it also depends on distance.

Sound will always need a medium to travel through, whether it be a gas, a liquid or a solid. Sound traveling through a liquid, or even better, a solid, will always be better than sound traveling through gas. The molecules in solids are packed very tightly. Liquids are not packed as tightly as solids, and gases are very loosely. Heat can also be a big component to how fast sound can travel. The hotter the weather is, the more the molecules will bump into each other and the fast sound will travel.

While sound does not travel in outer space, we have ways of interpreting any small vibrations that may occur not loud enough for the human ear to hear.

 

This entry was posted on April 12, 2016, in Education.

Understanding Sound

images (31)Hearing is one of the most important senses of the human body. We use it everyday in our daily lives, and we hear as much or more than we see, feel, taste, and smell. What do we exactly hear? The answer to that question is sound. What exactly is sound though, and how is it created? Sound is a series of vibrations that travel through air or another platform and heard when it reaches the ear of a person or animal. In more simpler terms, sound is a form of energy that spreads out through space. What is the source of all sound? In one word, vibration.

A major facet to understanding this concept is pitch. What exactly is pitch? Pitch is what refers to the frequency of the sound. A high pitched sound has a high vibration frequency, while a low pitched sound has a low vibration frequency. The pitch range of frequency is from about twenty hertz to twenty-thousand hertz. The more we age, our hearing range goes down or shrinks, more specifically at the end of high frequency.

Sound waves with frequencies below twenty hertz are called infrasonic. As for sound waves with frequencies above twenty-thousand hertz are called ultrasonic. Unfortunately for humans, the hearing of infrasonic and ultrasonic are unavailable. However dogs and bats can hear way better than humans. Dogs can listen to frequencies of over forty-thousand hertz and bats can hear over frequencies of over one hundred thousand hertz.

There are two more very important topics to be discussed when it comes to comprehending sound. These two include compressions and rarefactions. Compression is the pulse of compressed air. Rarefaction is the pulse of low-pressure air. An example of both of these happening in the real world is when someone both opens and closes a door. When someone opens a door, a compressions goes throughout the room. As for when someone closes a door, a rarefaction travels throughout the room. This is why when someone closes a door, a curtain moves. For all wave motion, it is not the surface and or the medium that travels across the room, but the pulse that does. Proof for this being true is when the curtain moves when someone closes a door.

In an overall summary, sound is a very important concept that needs to be understood. The main points include that sound is created by vibrations. It travels through air or another platform that can be heard by someone. Basically, you can’t hear sound in an empty space such as outer space. Important concepts to be noted and understood regarding sound are what pitch is, compressions, and rarefactions.

 

This entry was posted on March 21, 2016, in Education.

The History and the Types of Automotive Gasolines

download (43)The automotive industries were dated back to the early 19th centuries, and it has prospered until right now in our communities. Most cars in the 19th century uses simple types of a combustion engine that laid the foundation for the development of the engine we see today. However, the fuel sources of both engines that are used to propel the cars remain the same (as long as they are used to powered an internal combustion engine). In today’s society, we mainly see cars that have a combustion engine uses pure gasoline. However, they are many types of gasoline from leaded to unleaded fuel and from octane ratings rated at 87, 89, and 91.

The invention of pure gasoline (not to be confused with Diesel) dated back to the Gilded age with the distillation of oil to kerosene. At first, there was no used for gasoline because cars were not invented and most transportation uses steam as its sources of energy. Therefore, it was discarded. Gasoline finally became a valuable commodity, with the introduction of Henry Ford’s affordable car in the 1920s known as the “Model T.” As time progresses, we saw an improvement in refining gasoline and creating a purer fuel that would make cars go faster. Increasing the purity of gasoline meant that the octane level must be increased, so lead was added to improve engine performance. The Octane rating tells us how much air and fuel mixture can be compressed before being ignited. The higher the octane, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating. However, leaded fuel was bad for the environment, so there was another development that leads to unleaded fuel.

Unleaded gasoline was introduced in the 1970s when health problems from lead increased. Unleaded gasoline also guaranteed the conditions of important engine parts like the intake valves and fuel injectors; that would help improve fuel economy and performance. In today’s gas filling stations, we will see that the stations are required to carry Unleaded benzene gas. The octane rating of the gas we commonly see is 87, 89, and 91. The most standard unleaded fuel are rated at 87 octanes. It was designed for most normal cars that doesn’t require much power, but it is still powerful for small cars on the road today. 89 octane stands in a higher tier than 87, but still could not compete with 91. It has a faster ignition capability that is suited for some small sports cars, like those made in Japan and America.

The King of the Hill that beats all consumer-grade fuel is 91. Octane 91 is the premium grade unleaded fuel that meet the demands of some of the today’s most advanced engines. It has an octane level of 93, but it is blended with an octane level of 91. We can see that the most demanding European cars and supercars are required to refuel with this type of fuel, in order to achieve full performance.

In conclusion, the automotive industry could not live without the use of gasoline that is distilled from crude oil. Even though the innovations of electric power have progressed far, it is still expensive for most people. Gasoline is still considered the primary fuel source for the automobile.

Static Guard

images (30)Static Guard and How It Works

Static electricity is a kind of electricity that stays in one place. Static can build up on things that do not conduct electricity very well such as rubber and plastics. Coming in contact with static by providing a discharge of current from your body can be very uncomfortable. There are products which can eliminate or reduce static electricity in order to avoid a nasty shock. The product Static Guard is a chemical method used to eliminate static electricity. The spray is made up of a conducting polymer (plastic) and a solvent made from deionized water and alcohol. You spray the product on a surface like a dress or a sweater, and when it evaporates, it leaves behind a conducting “skin” on the surface of the object that prevents static build up. As the conducting layer is left on the surface of an object that has been sprayed, static electricity cannot build up on the object and, therefore, you do not have to worry about shocking yourself. Static electricity has no way to release the energy that builds up so it does not move until it is touched by something which can conduct the electricity. An example of this would be if you built up static electricity with your socks and then touched a doorknob. The static has nowhere to go until you touch the door knob which releases the static, causing a static shock. This example also illustrates an important point that metals, like those composing a doorknob, are good conductors of electricity.

Another example supposed solution to static shock is this: Sometimes cars drive with a rubber strip dangling out of the back of their car, mostly during the winter and fall. Some people believe that the rubber touching the ground will release the static electricity in the car. This has actually been proven to be completely wrong. This precaution is unnecessary because the car’s tires are responsible for transmitting static from the car to the ground and back again.

What makes the spray special is that there are components in the spray that neutralize your clothes to keep them from sticking to your legs and shocking you. This product is especially popular during the winter when people are constantly getting shocked by static electricity. This is because of all the layers of clothes a person wears. When the clothes rub together, it causes friction, which causes static electricity in return. However, if products such as these are not properly used, they can become dangerous to people if they are exposed to it for long periods of time. The product is flammable, and should not be placed near open flames or in hot spaces. The product can also cause trouble breathing, and irritation of the mucus membrane, which has lead to difficulty breathing. There have been no reported deaths attributed to this product, but the spray has been known, in rare cases, to cause liver damage in both humans and rats.

Static guard is a wonderful product that has been keeping our clothes static and cling free for years, but be warned, the product can cause serious side effects if used too frequently.